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ESAS-CSSC 2022 (Day 5)

Tu, 7.2.2023
| Original article from: SSJMM/ESAS 2022 & 17th CSSC
On Friday, September 9, the conference was ceremonially closed after a series of last lectures.
SSJMM: ESAS-CSSC 2022 (Day 5)

SSJMM: ESAS-CSSC 2022 (Day 5)

After many heartfelt speeches the organizing team was rewarded with small gifts.

The ESAS organizing team would like to thank all the participants of the conference and look forward to the next conference, where we will all meet again in good health and good spirits.

💡💡💡 BOOK OF ABSTRACTS ESAS-CSSC 2022

Programme friday 9th of September 2022

LASER INDUCED BREAKDOWN SPECTROMETRY

  • (Hall P31) CHAIR: GALBÁCS
9:00 – 9:30 Complementarity of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in cancer tissues analysis
  • IL 28: P. POŘÍZKA

It has been shown that cancerous tissues change the chemical composition of cells Error! Reference source not found. These changes in elemental composition can be observed using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) or Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), where imaging of biotic (e.g., C, P, Ca, Mg) and trace (e.g., Zn, Cu) elements provides information about the distribution of soft tissue elements and, consequently, the location of cancerous tissue.

This paper deals with a correlative study using LIBS and LA-ICP-MS in a sample of healthy human skin, four samples of malignant tumours (squamous cell carcinoma, malignant melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, and epithelioid angiosarcoma), and one sample of a benign tumour (pigmented nevus). Analysis was performed using both techniques for all these samples, and spatial distributions of selected elements were constructed. This work aims to show the potential of correlation of data obtained from both analytical methods, which could be used for the possible diagnosis of cancer as a complementary technique to classical histological examination.

SSJMM: Complementarity of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in cancer tissues analysis (P. POŘÍZKA)

9:30 – 10:00 Understanding the correlation of LIBS and acoustic measurements of rock and soil found in the traverse of Perseverance rover across the Jezero crater, Mars
  • IL 29: J. LASERNA

The SuperCam instrument of the NASA MARS 2020 Perseverance rover combines a suite of atomic and molecular spectroscopies intended for an extensive description of rocks, soils and minerals in the surroundings of the landing site of the mission – the Jezero crater. The microphone installed on the SuperCam instrument allows the acquisition of acoustic signals resulting from the expansion of laser-induced plasmas towards the atmosphere. Apart from being affected by the propagation characteristics of the Mars atmosphere, the acoustic signal has an additional component related to the properties of the target including surface morphology, hardness, deformation parameters, and elasticity, among others. This information is currently being investigated as a complementary resource for characterization of the ablated material and may well supplement the LIBS data gathered from coincident laser shots. This talk will present SuperCam acoustic data of rocks and minerals found in the traverse of the Perseverance rover and will discuss its correlation with LIBS spectra.

SSJMM: Understanding the correlation of LIBS and acoustic measurements of rock and soil found in the traverse of Perseverance rover across the Jezero crater, Mars (J. LASERNA)

10:00 – 10:20 Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy imaging of uranium ores
  • OL 61: K. NOVOTNÝ

Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was applied to create images revealing the distribution and possible migration of elements in samples of uranium ore. Compared to SEM or LA-ICP-MS, fast LIBS scanning made it possible to perform analysis across the big sample area containing different mineral phases of uranium ores including associated minerals. However, the imaging of some associated elements is due to rich spectra and low contents still challenging. Moreover, compromise conditions have to be often set to reach the required spatial resolution, speed of scanning and sensitivity. Generally, higher resolution is paid for by the loss of sensitivity and vice versa. Nevertheless, there are some possibilities for improvement in both instrumentation and spectral data processing. Different effects such as the role of the introduction of noble gas, influence of laser wavelength or double pulse methods will be discussed.

The investigated geological samples represent U-mineralisation from a former deep uranium mine. Obtained elemental images help to reveal and distinguish different phases such as massive uraninite and carbonate vein or metasomatite. Additionally, the signal correlation of some elements (correlation between different emission lines) helps with the identification of other associated minerals.

10:20 – 10:40 LIBS applications of online monitoring and 2D/3D mappings for advanced control of industrial processes
  • OL 62: Y. DEGUCHI

Advanced monitoring and control methods are significant in the industrial processes. Laserinduced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is an analytical detection technique based on atomic emission spectroscopy to measure the elemental composition, which has been widely applied in various fields (1). In this study, LIBS applications of online monitoring and 2D/3D mappings were demonstrated for advanced control of industrial processes.

A collinear long and short DP-LIBS method (LS-DP-LIBS) was developed to improve the detection ability and measurement accuracy by the control of the plasma cooling process using the long pulse-width laser radiation (2). The plasma generated by the short pulse-width laser is stabilized and maintained at high temperature during the plasma cooling process by long pulsewidth laser radiation. C, Al, Si, S, Ti, Cr, Ni, Cu, Nb, Mo, Mn, and B concentration measurements in molten steel samples were performed using LS-DP-LIBS. It demonstrates the feasibility of multi-element concentration measurements in iron and steel making processes and this will lead to the advanced monitoring and control methods in these processes.

The analysis of elemental composition distribution is indispensable to ensure the quality of various materials production. In this regard, 2D/3D mapping techniques using LIBS are widely used in various fields. In many LIBS studies, lasers with ns pulse widths are used, and the spatial resolution of 2D LIBS mapping is usually several to several tens of micrometers. In this study, a spatial resolution of 1 μm was achieved by using a laser with a pulse width of 9 ps. This LIBS mapping system consists of a picosecond laser, lens, spectrometer, ICMOS camera, and XYZ stage. The LIBS system was applied to steel and Li-ion battery electrodes for 2D elemental distribution analysis. The steel sample has a structure with Zn coating around the steel at the μm level, and this LIBS mapping system was able to detect the Zn distribution around the steel at the μm level. This result was in good agreement with the SEM-EDS measurement. LIBS has the advantage of elemental composition mapping without the need for high vacuum conditions and has many advantages when applied to industrial processes. In the future, the LIBS analysis speed is improved to 1 kHz and the LIBS system is utilized for elemental composition mapping in industrial processes.

SSJMM: LIBS applications of online monitoring and 2D-3D mappings for advanced control of industrial processes (Y. DEGUCHI)

10:40 – 11:10 COFFEE BREAK
  • ATRIUM OF FACULTY OF SOCIAL STUDIES

LASER INDUCED BREAKDOWN SPECTROMETRY

  • (Hall P31) CHAIR: LASERNA
11:10 – 11:40 Nanoparticles in plasma spectroscopy: detection and signal enhancement in gaseous, liquid and solid samples
  • IL 30: G. GALBÁCS

Nanoscience has advanced greatly in the last two decades. Due to their special optical, mechanical, magnetic and energetic properties, nanoparticles (NPs) are nowadays exploited in many industrial, scientific and medical fields. The continuous development of nanomaterials as well as their increasing presence in the environment and biological systems also necessitates the development of such analytical methods that are capable of the sensitive detection and characterization of NPs in various sample matrices. Such methods often built on the application of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) or single particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (spICP-MS). At the same time, plasma spectroscopy techniques – LIBS included – also can benefit from using NPs to enhance their analytical signals. Therefore the development of NPs and plasma spectroscopy are strongly intertwined fields.

In this contribution, some recent results of the research group of the author obtained using LIBS and spICP-MS methods will be presented. It will be demonstrated, how various characteristics (composition, concentration, structure, size distribution, porosity, aspect ratio, etc.) of inorganic NPs and nanocomposites dispersed in aqueous liquid samples can be assessed using novel spICP-MS methodologies. The LIBS detection and characterization of NPs suspended in a gas medium and occurring in plant samples will also be described. Results on LIBS signal enhancement effectuated with the application of NPs for gas, liquid and solid samples via the exploitation of plasmonic and electron field- or thermoemission mechanisms will also be presented.

SSJMM: Nanoparticles in plasma spectroscopy - detection and signal enhancement in gaseous, liquid and solid samples (G. GALBÁCS)

11:40 – 12:10 Enhancing the sensitivity of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for the detection of nanoparticle-labeled cancerous tissues
  • IL 31: J. KAISER

Fluorescent labels, based on conjugates of antibodies with various nanoparticles, are popular because of their broad detection posibilities (plate readers, microscopes). However, fluorescence is a limiting factor in e.g. multiplexing; only a limited number of dyes can be detected due to the overlaps of dye spectra or optical filters. Thus, novel readout methods are necessary to overcome such limitations. Laser spectroscopy – namely Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) – is a prospective option in nanoparticle detection (1). LIBS provides superior performance in terms of throughput and repetition rate enabling large-scale elemental imaging in combination with high lateral resolution. In this talk, we will demonstrate the feasibility of LIBS as a readout method in immunochemical assays and imaging of cancer tissues (breast cancer) through the indirect detection of upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) (2). The LIBS scanning enabled detecting the characteristic elemental signature of yttrium as a principal constituent of UCNP, thus indirectly providing a reliable way to differentiate between HER2-positive BT-474 cells and HER2-negative MDA-MB-231 cells. The comparison of results with upconversion optical microscopy and luminescence intensity scanning confirmed that LIBS is a promising alternative for the readout of immunohistochemical samples. Moreover, we have deployed the collinear double-pulse arrangement for enhanced sensitivity and detection capability, Fig. 1.

SSJMM: Fig. 1. Signal of Y II 437.49 nm spectral line enhanced by collinear DP arrangement

12:10 – 12:30 Polychromator ORCA ( Optimized Rowland Circle Alignment )
  • OL 63: P. KOLEČKÁŘ

The lecture will discuss a spectrometer that is competitive in ICP spectrometers to ECHELLE type spectrometers. The ECHELLE optical system is very often used in ICP spectrometers, which has its advantages (in particular, it is small in size), but also a number of disadvantages, especially the very variable spectral resolution.

The company SPECTRO A.I. Kleve, Germany uses Paschen-Runge type spectrometers in their manufactured instruments. This lecture discusses these spectrometers. Paschen-Runge spectrometers use the Rowland circle system. They are generally larger in size than ECHELLE spectrometers, but they have a number of advantages, among which the main ones include constant and uniform spectral resolution and smaller (weaker) scattered light than in ECHELLE spectrometers.

The Optimized Roland Circle Alignment Concept (ORCA), as SPECTRO AI calls its patented spectrometer system, is based on the Paschen-Runge spectrometer system.

In this system, the spectral resolution is determined only by the diameter of the Rowland circle and the dispersion of the grating used (number of scratches/1mm). The larger the diameter of the Rowland circle and the number of scratches of the dispersion grating, the better the spectral resolution. But this cannot be increased to infinity because the light intensity decreases with the square of the distance. At twice the distance, there is a fourfold decrease in light. Therefore, a reasonable compromise must be chosen.

SSJMM: Polychromator ORCA ( Optimized Rowland Circle Alignment ) (P. KOLEČKÁŘ)

12:30 – 12:50 Aerosol analysis with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: Sampling approaches and recent applications
  • OL 64: D. HAHN

This talk describes how laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) became a viable analytical tool for aerosol analysis through advances in sampling and data analysis strategies, as well as deployment applications. The analysis of aerosols is a challenging task due to the wide variation of aerosol particles characteristics (e.g., source, size, chemical composition) and measurements requirements (e.g., chemical determination, sizing, number density), however, LIBS has demonstrated to perform well analyzing both the aerosol particles and the gaseous phase, specially, in harsh conditions where other techniques are simply not applicable. By coupling the point-to-point sampling nature of laser-induced plasmas with the discrete nature of aerosols particles and selective spectra analysis (i.e., Conditional Analysis) a considerable increase in LIBS sensitivity can be achieved. Finally, an overview of aerosol LIBS applications in industrial and laboratory setting are presented to showcase the versatility and in situ applicability of LIBS with recent data, including the applications of heavy metals high temperature effluents, gas and particulate emissions from battery cells at high temperature, and vapors and aerosols from molten salts.

SSJMM: Aerosol analysis with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy - Sampling approaches and recent applications (D. HAHN)

12:50 – 13:10 ESAS-CSSC 2022 CLOSING CEREMONY
13:10 – 14:30 LUNCH
  • MU RECTORATE
ESAS
 

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